About Lackham Farm

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a

A.I.

Artificial Insemination. Semen collected from the bull and implanted into the cow using a straw, by hand


Abattoir

A place where animals are slaughtered and prepared for sale as meat


Acc

Abreviation for accuracy. The higher this percentage figure the more likely that it reflects the animals true worth.


ACR

Automatic Cluster Removal occurs when a cow has finished giving milk the machine detects the reduced flow, cuts off the vaccuum to the cluster and gently pulls off the cluster.


acre

the old standard for measuring field areas and there are 2.47 acres in a hectare.


agriculture

art, practice of cultivating land


Agronomist

Person who inspects crops and advises farmers on chemical etc.


Amino acid

Protein is made up of the these simple chemicals, some of which are essential in an animals diet for health and growth.


aphids

Small sap sucking insects which infest cereals and carry a virus disease Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus - BYVD.


Artificial Insemination

Semen collected from the bull and implanted into the cow using a straw


Assurance scheme

A quality standard scheme to ensure high quality food production systems


Automatic Cluster Removal

See ACR


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b

Bactoscan

A measure of the Bacterial content of milk. Must be below 100,000 bacteria per ml.


Baled

The method of collecting straw by packing it into bales or packs


Barbed wire

Fencing wire with pointed spikes to prevent stock from escaping


Beans

Pulse crop grown for human or animal consumption containing protein


Bedding

Providing loose straw for animals to lie on


Beef

Cattle which are managed to produce meat


Beef stores

Cattle fed on a specific diet to encourage planned growth rates


Beef value

The Beef Value ranks animals on the expected carcase financial merit of their offspring.For example, a Beef Value for a bull of 20 means his carcase is estimated to be 20 more valuable than the carcase from a bull with a Beef Value of 0.


Big bags

Large plastic bags containing fertiliser or seed - may hold 600 - 1000kg of product


Brewers grains

A by-product of the brewing industry. Contains the remains of barley after malt has been extracted, but still tastes good to a cow.


bullock

A castrated bull. It behaves less agressively than an entire bull. Also known as a steer


butterfat

The fat found in milk, usually 3.5% to 4% by weight.


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c

Calcium

A chemical found in lime, chalk and limestone which are used to neutralize soil acidity. Essential for crop growth. Also essential together with phosphorus for healthy teeth and bones in animals.


Calf rearing

Calves are removed from their mothers and brought up in specialist housing


Calving

The birth of a calf


CAP

The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union which regulates support policies for farmers.


carcase

See carcass


carcass

The body of a meat animal after slaugter, when skin, offal, head and feet have been removed.


Castration

The removal of testes on a male animal to prevent unwanted reproduction


Cellcount

A measure of the number of white blood cells found in milk. Gives an indication of the level of mastitis in the dairy herd.


Cereals

Crops like wheat, barley and oats - planted in either autumn or spring


Certificate of competence

A certificate issued when a person is trained in the correct use of a machine


Chemical

Pesticides used to control weeds, diseases or pests


Chlorophyll

The green pigmentation of the plant leaves


Chronic disease

A disease which an animal will suffer over a long period.


Clamps

Holding area for storing silage


Clostridial

Bacterial infections of sheep common at lambing


Cluster

The equipment which is applied to a cows teats to extract the milk. Composed of a clawpiece to which four teat cups are attached.


CO2

Carbon dioxide


CO2, H20, O2,

Carbon dioxide, Water, Oxygen


Colostrum

The first nutritious milk produced by the mother cow after a calf is born


Combine harvester

Machine used to harvest grain crops like wheat, oilseed rape etc.


Compaction

When a soil becomes too firm and hard to allow good plant root growth


Concentrates

Prepared feed containing protein, energy etc. to encourage growth or production


Conformation

The term to describe the shape of an animal belonging to a defined breed. Milk producing breeds have a very different shape to meat producing breeds.


Contamination

When something unwanted enters a quality product


Cool

Grain must be kept cold to avoid pests breeding in it once it is in store


Countrywide

A company that supplies agricultural products to farmers


cow

Female of the species cattle. Generally refering to an animal which has had one or more calves.


crop scouting

Precise assessments of pest pressure and crop performance which can be tied to a specific location for better interpretation.


Crop species

Different types of crop - e.g. wheat or barley


Cross bred

An animal whose parents were from different breeds


cross tabulation

Comparison of attribute data by location in two or more map layers


Crude protein

A term used as an estimate of protein content of feedstuffs. Crude protein includes low value sources of protein.


Cubicle

Individual lying area within a covered shed for dairy cattle to rest


Cull

The term for disposing of breeding anaimls which are unsuitable to use for further breeding.


Cultivation

The process of preparing a field for planting using machinery


Cultivator

Implement with fixed legs and tines used for mixing soil


cutting

A track up the side of any sort of hill made by a bulldozer.


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d

Dairy herd

A group of cows used for milk production


dcw

Dressed carcus weight. This is usually 50 - 60% of the weight ofthe live animal.


Diet

A carefully planned mix of feeds to encourage growth or production


Difficult births

When a ewe or cow has trouble in giving birth by itself


Dipping

Sheep are drenched and dipped to protect them against pests and illness. Drenching at weaning at and at regular intervals thereafter can prevent some worm parasites but the parasites, mostly worms, are becaming resistant to the drench. Dipping is done after shearing by pour-on, swim, shower or spray on treatment to control lice and flystrike outbreaks. Lousy sheep don’t do well.


Disbud

Removal of small horns when animal is young


Discs

Implement used to chop soil in order to create a seedbed


Diseases

Fungi, bacteria or viral infections of plants or animals


Docked

Removal of portion of a lambs tail for health reasons


Drench

Application of liquid medication via the animal’s mouth


Dried

Grain crops must be dried to the correct moisture levels by blowing air through them


Drill

Implement used to plant seeds like wheat, barley etc.


Dry cow therapy

A course of antibiotics given to milking cows, when they are dried off, in order to reduce the chance of mastitus occurring in the next lacation.


Dung

Animal faeces


Dystokia

Difficult birth


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e

Ear

The ripened seed head of the plant


Ear tagged

A legally required, plastic tag, clipped in the animal’s ear for identification


EBV

Estimated breeding value of an animal. A figure computed from recordings of an animal and its parents’ performance.


Enterprise

A term for one productive activity on a farm, eg dairy, sheep, beef, wheat, barley enterprise . Each product has its own particular costs and returns.


Ewe

Female sheep


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f

farm

tract of land for cultivation or rearing livestock


Ferment

The process of "pickling" silage in acid conditions by excluding air


Fertiliser

Man-made product containing nutrients for plant growth


Field

An area of enclosed land used for the production of crops or the grazing of livestock


Fieldwork

Using machinery in fields


Finishing system

Specific method of feeding cattle or sheep for fattening purposes


Fixed costs

These are costs which do not vary directly with size of enterprise. Eg a tractor could be used for growing 300 ha of cereals or 350 ha. Some costs eg fuel are difficult to allocate to enterprises because records are not accurate enough.


Fleece

The woolly coat of a sheep


Flock

A group of sheep


follower

Young cattle being reared as replacements to the dairy and beef cow herds.


forage

The term used for crops grown to feed animals, eg grass, maize, turnips, kale, clover


Forage harvester

Machine used to gather and chop grass or maize for silage


Foremilk

A squirt of milk from each teat before the milking cups are applied. The milk which is in the teat is the milk which is most likely to be contaminated with bacteria. Removing it before milking ensures that the rest of the milk taken from the cow is pure and free from contamination. A milker can also check to see if there are any signs of mastitis in the udder by looking for clots in the foremilk.


Freemartin

A condition in cattle where twins are born, one being male and the other female. This usually results in the female twin being infertile.


Freeze brand

A technique of branding cattle and horses using an extremely cold branding iron. This results in the animal growing white hair at the site of the brand. Most effective if used on black animals where it gives an easily read identity number.


Friesian

The most widely used breed of cow for producing milk (black and white)


Fungal disease

A disease caused by a fungus


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g

Gestation

The period of time an animal is pregnant. 147 days for a ewe, 3months 3 weeks 3 days for a sow (114 days), 283 days for a cow


Gigot

The meaty upper part of the rear leg of a lamb


Grain storage building

Shed or bin where harvested grains are dried and stored


Grains

Ripe seed part of a plant that is harvested


Gross Margin

This is a measure of the efficiency of an enterprise and is defined as Output minus variable costs


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h

Ha

Hectare is the measure of area and is equal to 10,000 square metres or approx 2.47 acres


Harvest

Process of cutting and gathering a crop


Heat

Period when an animal is ready to be inseminated


Hedge planting

Renewal of hedges using young plants


Heifer

Term for a young cow aged up to having her second calf.


Herbicide

A chemical used to kill weeds


Herdbook

A database containing records of parentage of pedigree animals


herringbone parlour

A popular style of milking parlour where the cows stand in two rows, overlapping each other to form the herrinbone pattern. This arrangement leads to a shorter parlour than one where the cows are end to end behind each other as in a tandem parlour.


Horns

Pointed outgrowth on head of cattle, goats or sheep


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i

IACS

The integrated Administration and Central System records farm details of eligibility for arable area payments,beef special premium, suckler cow premium, etc.


Implements

Farm tools or machinery


Inorganic

Fertiliser which is factory produced from industrial chemicals


Intra-mammary

The term used when antibiotic preparations are infused into the teat, usually to treat mastitis.


Isolation box

Pens or loose box where animals suspected of carrying infectious diseases can be housed while awaiting confirmation of health status. Prevents disease spread to healthy animals.


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j

JCB Fastrac

A high speed tractor


Jersey

A breed of dairy cow originating from the island of Jersey. Produces milk with a high butterfat content


Joule

A unit of energy. MegaJoules are used to measure the energy value of farm foodstuffs.


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k

kid

A young goat


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l

Lactation

The period of days in a year that a cow is producing milk


lactose

The sugar found in milk.


Lambing

The time when ewes give birth to lambs


Leafy part

Leaves on grass which vary in size according to grass species


Ley

Field sown with grass seed which will last for one or more years. Short term leys usually yield heavier crops than permanent grass.


Limousin

A breed of beef cattle


Local anaesthetic

Injection given to freeze a specific area of the animal ready for treatment


Lupins

Plant grown for its high protein content, used in animal feed


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m

Machinery

Any mechanical implement used to carry out fieldwork on farms


Magnesium

A mineral needed by plants and animals. In plants deficiency causes yellowing of leaves. In animals deficiency causes grass staggers.


Maize

Crop grown for conserving as winter feed for cattle (like sweet corn)


mastitis

Inflamation of the udder caused by bacteria. Serious cases lead to loss of udder function and in some rare cases death of the cow. Care needs to be taken during milking to avoid spread of the bacteria responsible for the disease.


Mastitus

See mastitis


Meadow

Traditional grass field cut for hay in the summer.


Mildew

A fungal disease of crops, characterised by white fluffy pustules on leaves, ears and stems.


milk flow meter

A meter attached to the milk line from the milking cluster which measures the amount of milk produced by a cow and signals the ACR to remove the teat cups from the cow when milk flow ceases.


milk let down

When the cow’s udder is stimulated by a suckling calf or the action of the milking process she releases the milk stored in her udder. If the cow is frightened the let down process is suppressed by andrenalin in her body.


Monopitch building

A farm building where the roof slopes in one direction only, often across the shorter dimension. Access to the building is usually where the roof is highest.


MOPF

Margin over purchased foods. Value of milk produced less the cost of food purchased for the cow. This shows the value of the contribution from food grown on the farm.


Mounted sprayer

Sprayer mounted on the back of a tractor, rather than trailed machine


Mower

Machine used to cut grass for silage


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n

Nitrogen fertiliser

Man-made product containing nitrogen for plant growth


Notton Farm

One of the college farms used for housing lambing ewes


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o

O2

Oxygen


Oilseed rape

Crop with yellow flowers grown to produce cooking oil and animal feed


Old plant material

Residues from a previous crop


Organic

Farmyard manure


Output

This is the value(in )of the production from an enterprise. Eg a cow gives 9000 litres of milk worth 15p per litre. Output is 1,350 of milk per cow per year.


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p

Parasite

An animal which lives on another animal and which often causes health problems. Examples are roundworms in animal intestines(internal parasites) and lice on the skin(external parasites).


Parlour

The building which houses milking equipment where the cows are milked once, twice or three times per day


Parturition

Term used to describe the birth process


pasture

Grass field used for grazing animals. It may be permanent or a ley.


PD

Pregnancy diagnosis by the vet(via rectal examination) takes place about 6 weeks after service.


Peas

Pulse crop grown for human or animal consumption containing protein


Pedigree

An animal whose parents are recorded as true to the breed in a herdbook


Phosphate

A fertilizer containing phosphorus which is vital for healthy crop root and shoot growth.


Photosynthesis

The process whereby plants use sunlight to convert CO2 and H20 into sugar and O2


Plots

Small areas of crops used to test chemicals or varieties


Plough

Tractor drawn implement used to invert the soil


Ploughed

Land that has been inverted by a plough


Pneumonia

Potentially fatal, flu-like illness


Points

The wearing tips on a cultivator that cut into the soil


Potash

A fertilizer containing potassium which is needed for heathy crop growth and good yields.


Powdered milk

Milk substitute fed to calves once they have been removed from the mother


Power Harrow

Rotary implement used to break down lumps in soil after ploughing


Pre-emergence

Before the planted crop breaks through the soil surface


Pre-lambing

Period before ewes produce lambs


Precision drill

A planting machine which places seeds individually in the soil


Prolificacy

A measure of the breeding ability of farm animals eg the number of lambs born per year from a ewe.


Protein

An essential part of all animals and plants. Milk contains 3-4% protein (casein).


Pulsation

A fluctuating vaccuum applied to the teat cup liner to simulate the sucking of a calf and thus extracting milk from the cow in a natural way.


Pulse

A pea or bean crop grown for animal and human food


Pure bred

An animal of which the parents are the same breed


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q

Quality milk

Milk that is free from contamination and is sold for human consumption


quota

Milk quotas restrict the quantity of milk a farmer can produce from his herd. They are imposed by the EU to prvent over supply of milk.


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r

Ram

Male sheep


Resistant varieties

Varieties that may withstand a disease to a greater or lesser extent


Roller

Tractor drawn implement with rings used to firm the soil


Roundworm parasites

Worm-like creatures that infect sheep and feed in their gut causing illness


rumen

The largest of a cow’s four stomachs. It holds a huge amount of grass where bacteria break down the fibre into energy for the cow.


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s

Scan

Ultrasonic detection of unborn animals (foetus)to establish if mother is pregnant


Seed bed

Soil that has been worked down ready for planting


Seed head

The flowering part of a plant which produces seed or grain


Self-propelled

A machine that has its own power source (engine)


Semen

Liquid that carries sperm collected from a bull for artificial insemination


Shares

The wearing edges on a plough that cut into the soil


Silage

Grass or maize harvested and stored under plastic for winter cattle feed


Simmental

A dual purpose breed of cattle, primarily used for beef production in the UK


Sire

The father of an animal


Sodium

A chemical found in common salt. Salt is essential for animal heath and which can also boost yields of root crops.


Soil types

Various types of soil - e.g. clay, sand, silt, peat, chalk


Specialist tests

See certificate of competence


Spinner

A machine which spreads fertilizer by throwing the fertilizer from a spinning disc


Spore

The reproductive parts of a fungus responsible for spreading it across a crop


Sprayed

A crop that has had pesticides applied to it


Sprayer

Machine used to apply chemicals to a crop


Spring Barley

Cereal planted in spring to produce grain for beer, whiskey or animal feed


Steer

A castrated bull, also known as a bullock.


Stocking rate

A measure of the number of animals kept per hectare, Usually measured in Livestock Units (1 LU = one cow or 6 ewes) per hectare.


Stockman

Person responsible for looking after livestock on the farm


Straw

The ripened stalk of the plant, once the grain has been removed


Stubble

The remains of the plant stalk left behind from a harvested crop


Sugar beet pulp

The remains of the sugar beet root after sugar has been extracted. A tasty food for cattle and sheep, high in energy, may be wet or dried. Dried SBP must not be fed to horses as it will swell up inside their stomach.


Sward

A measure of the thickness or leafiness of a grass crop


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t

Teat cup

The part of the milking machine which attaches to a cow’s teat by vaccuum suction. It has a rubber lining which pulsates against the teat.


Terminal Sire

A breed of sheep or cattle noted for good meat quality which is used to breed offspring to be raised for meat production.


Threshes

The process whereby grains are separated from the plant inside a combine harvester


Tillering

When a plant produces side shoot - each of which will produce a flowering head


top dressing

fertilizer applied in the spring to growing crops (usually nitrogen fertilizer)


Tupping

Introducing male sheep into the flock to enable reproduction


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u

udder

The milk secreting organ of a cow or sheep. Milk is produced in the spongy tissue in the udder and secreted from the teats. Cows have four teats and ewes two.


UDP

Undegradeable protein is high value protein which by passes the rumen and is digested by enzymes.


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v

Vaccinate

Injections given to animals to prevent or cure diseases or pests


Variable costs

These are costs which vary directly with the scale of the enterprise. For example to grow one hectare of wheat requires 100 spent on seed, fertilizer and sprays. One hundred hectares will cost 100 times as much.


Varieties

Different types of the same species of plant


Volunteer

Plants self seeded from the previous crop which may cause competition and contamination problems in the new crop.


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w

Winter barley

Cereal planted in autumn to produce grain for beer, whiskey or animal feed


Winter oats

Cereal planted in autumn to produce grain for porridge or feed


Winter wheat

Cereal planted in autumn to produce grain for bread, biscuits or animal feed


Wire netting

Commonly used around sheep paddocks


Workshop

Area where farm machinery is maintained and repaired


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x

xmas

Work does not stop on a farm. Animals need to be fed and the cows milked even on Christmas day.


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y

yield monitoring

Regular intervals where a harvested weight has been obtained along with a GPS reading. A display of the weights translated to kg/Ha or yield provides a yield map.


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z

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